Story of The Baloch

Professor Naela Quadri

It is really a difficult job to synchronize eleven thousand years in few pages Balochistan’s known history is even much more older. Balochs are one of the most blessed people on earth by all means; our vast country from central Asia till the Baloch Sea in Indian Ocean is full of the most precious treasures materially and spiritually. We are one of the richest nations in the world if we assess our assets of gold, oil, gas, Uranium, and precious stones. We own the longest coast in Asia 1700 km on the opening of strait of Hurmag (Hurmuz) till Karachi. Our pearl like clean sea waters are full of world’s largest prawns, dolphins, sharks, whales, huge size green turtles called living dinosaurs, and other marine life. 

millions of years ago the great land of Balochistan was lush with greenery and jungles where lot of food was available this was dinosaurs age. Complete skeleton of one of those dinosaurs was found in Dera Bugti Balochistan, research by the archeologists and zoologists have proved that the present Baloch horses ancestors were these Baloch dinosaurs. Baloch dinosaurs found in Dera Bugti Balochistan Life is flowing here from pre history till today in a sequence there is not a single evidence of any irrelevance. The whole of Baloch Kurd landscape is full of archeological sites that show our wonderful past and our contribution in human civilization. Mehrgarh is the jewel of Shaal-Naal civilization where the very basic tools of human civilization were invented like wheal and expression by writing in symbols called proto writing, and many other inventions in Mehrgarh were used thousands of years later in other civilizations. Wheal is known as the foundation of civilization, as its invention made transportation traveling easy and speedy, pottery manufacture more developed and sustainable, its use in pulley and other basic instruments made economic development faster. It is an honor that wheal was first invented in Mehrgarh Balochistan. Today's life of Baloch people in divided and occupied territories, facing actions from the states to keep us away from knowledge, infrastructure, development and unification has resulted in many kinds of our depravations and exploitations and some one coming from todays developed and renaissance Europe cannot think about our actual status in creation of todays human civilization. That happened when a French archeologist team in leadership of Mr. Jean Francois Jarrige came to the Mehrgarh Balochistan on invitation of Chief of Raisani Balochs in December 1974, he visited archeological sites there and thought that as a connecting corridor the remains of karawans from Mohanjo daro and Harrapa of Indus, Shahr e sokhta of Turkmenia and Mandigak of Kandhar civilization are left here but when he excavated deeper and deeper his team was surprised to find that they are in the remains of the mother of all civilizations of the world. They left all other archeological fields and concentrated only on Mehrgarh and areas around it for last 37 years to work more and more and understand the beginning of human society, social relations, economic activities, geographical linkages and impact of Mother civilization of Mehrgarh on the neighboring civilizations of Central Asia Iran Afghanistan India and Babylon as its grand children. Paintings on pottery discovered from Mehrgarh Mehrgarh Dastar on head of our ancestors First human writings in symbols in Mehrgarh In 2000 I was invited to give presentation about Balochistan in Lahore Press Club I introduced Mehrgarh civilization that was very difficult for them to digest this pride of Balochistan so a Punjabi journalist raised a question to me that how I can prove that Balochs are the successors of the people of Mehrgarh? I showed the same patterns of Mehrgarh on my Balochi dress I was wearing as usual. I explained that the Baloch women have preserved the patterns and symbols of Mehrgarh the Shaal-Naal civilization on their dresses and carpets with the help of embroidery and weaving rugs by colored threads as these are the medium of expression for them instead of canvas, type writers, or computers. 

The great Kurd nation is the ancestral or mother nation of Baloch. Kaldani, Adargani, Naroi, Brahoi, Zangana are the major ancient Kurd tribes that have multiplied and developed as today’s Baloch nation. Balochi (Brahoi, Rakhshani, Sulemani and Makurani) dialects are also spoken by Kurds till today. Few hundred years ago a famous Baloch scholar Akhund Saleh wrote a book ‘Kurdgal Namek’ that contains all the details of these Kurds and their fabulous ameers who lived in a very organized, united and respectable manner from Makran to Central Asia. Kurd ancestors have left their cherished memories as Gabrband the catch dams for water management, Miri the Kurd forts and Karez the underground irrigation channels, these are found all around Makran, Jhalawan, Sarawan, Rakhshan, Sibi and Derajat. Khuzdar and Kalat always have been the capital of Balochistan. Baloch country has always been a welcoming homeland for all Kurd Balochs from Halab Syria  , coast of Caspian Sea, and Mount Alboorz whenever they had serious problems with their neighbor nations. Arrival of these Balochs strengthened local Kurd Baloch’s defensive and economic systems and contributed new shades of culture in the existed rich Kurd Baloch culture. This migration is of internal nature; Kurd Baloch people had issues in their habitats they migrated to Balochistan for a safer life with their own Balochs in majority and stronger position but sometimes historians mistakenly assume any one of these great migrations as the whole Baloch history that needs to be corrected. Balochs are living in Balochistan for thousands of years in a proven sequence of all ages pre Neolithic that is before stone age, Neolithic chalcolithic age when humans domesticated animals and started agriculture, till today’s scientific age, and in all these ages we have created almost same geometric designs as motifs, paintings, embroidery, rugs, carvings so it is not only a proof that we are the creators of Mehrgarh, but it is also a unique journey of creative art for eleven thousand years by Kurd Baloch women that is mostly made with geometric shapes and permanent colors these colors become more prominent on the rocks when rain falls on these paintings even today. These red and black colors are used in pottery painting in Mehrgarh and many thousand years after in painting of Kurd Baloch heroes and same kind of symbols on rocks in the mountains of Balochistan and Kurdistan. Treasure hunters are

busy in digging and destroying the archeological sites for greed they sell our history for few pennies they must be stopped, any where you find such thieves stop them; there should be a punishment for such thieves by community elders, because they are depriving us from our national pride.

Kalat was the capital of the Kurd Baloch country centuries before the Hakhmanshi dynasty of Faras. According to Kurdgal Namek the great Med Kochak Kurd is the great ancestor of the indigenous Balochs of the present Balochistan from his line eight Kurd Baloch brothers are the ancestors of the main basic Baloch tribes Adargani Kurd Baloch lived in Makran, Naroi Kurd Baloch in Seistan and Rakhshan till Nimroze and Hirat, Brahoi Kurd Balochs in Sarawan Jhalawan, in Kachhi they lived jointly for a stronger defensive strategy. Zangana Kurds lived in the north of Balochistan now in Afghanistan.

Another great Baloch tribe is Rind from the line of eminent Kaldani Kurds lived in Halab Syria. One of the grand migrations in Baloch history is of forty four Kaldani Kurd tribes collectively called the Rind in the leadership of Mir Jalal Khan migrated from Halab to Makran. The brave Rinds are living from Makran to Sibi and Derajat as one of the prominent Baloch tribes playing leading role in today’s Baloch independence movement as Marri and Bugti.

Around eight hundred years ago a brave Kurd chief Amir Kambar Rais put the foundation of the present Baloch dynasty. Amir Meero, Mir Omar, Mir Hammal Jiand Hote, Mir Chakar Rind, Noori Naseer Khan, Mir Mehrab Khan earned the status of great Baloch rulers in history.

Balochs in views of others

Heroic bravery of Baloch is praised by many historians and poets of other nations. Herodotus a Greek historian 

wrote that Baloch army was wearing leather jackets and shiny swords, when they fight never give up.

Shah Latif great Sindhi Sufi poet has praised Baloch character and respect of their own words and promises.

Great Farsi poet Firdousi says that Baloch army with high flag having black panther is extremely brave no one has ever saw their backs in battle field.

Waris Shah a famous Punjabi poet praises Baloch personality and bravery when he describes Murad Baloch a hero of their love story Heer Waris Shah.

Col. Lamberk and Col. Brown have written in their diaries and reports that they have never seen anyone like Balochs when they fight and no one as Balochs in dialogue due to their seriousness and keeping their words.

Statue of Mir Hammal Jiand made by Portuguese in Goa India after fighting for decades is an expression of gratitude from a brave nation for another brave nation.


Baloch Resistance History

Baloch has always faced very hard times in history to protect their country and sovereignty. We fought and defeated the Mangols, Greeks, Portuguese, British and now we are fighting Pakistan and Iran.  No one succeeded in enslaving us or occupying our country and no one can be because Baloch keeps defense of motherland, culture, and Baloch nation as the first priority, more important than their own life.

Mongols conquered a huge part of Asia. There army was thought undefeatable but they could not conquered Balochistan. Memories of that fight are saved in a cave in Pandran near Kalat.

Sikandar and his Greek army invaded almost the world but after a fierce fight back from Baloch warriors he had to leave Balochistan, our water was indigestible for him he got very sick and left Balochistan and went back to Greece. 

In fifteenth century European nations were busy in occupying and looting different parts of the world like America Australia Canada Africa and India. Balochistan was also their target. Portuguese navy attacked on the Balochistan’s coastal cities of Pasni and Gwadar in the leadership of Vasco da gama. Baloch fought with them in leadership of Chief Mir Hammal Jiand Hote and defeated them, arms of Portuguese army snatched by Baloch are still kept in Pasni and one of their cannon is still in Gwadar. The famous series of seven caves of Mir Hammal in the mountain of Battail Gwadar is an astonishing architecture as one enters in the first cave in the base of the mountain it opens in the second cave it seems you are going downward, sequence of these seven caves one by one ends in the last seventh cave that opens on the top of the Mount Battail that gives a shocking surprise that only few minutes of walking deep in the caves one after one downwards, end on the top. The top of Mount Battail is a huge fertile plat farm, here clean water to drink and agriculture is available that served as a safe bunker mount with enough food and water for Baloch to fight for the defense of their country from invading Portuguese armies.

As admiration of bravery and superior war strategies Portuguese made a statue of Mir Hammal Jiand it is still in the Museum of Goa in India.

In late nineteenth century British almost conquered Bengal and India till Punjab but attack on Balochistan gave them an opposite answer. Marri Baloch fought them at Nafask Kahan defeated British army who left behind there dead bodies and three cannons.

Another historical defeat was given to British General Dire in the mountains and valleys of Taftan by great Balochs and their chiefs Mir Shahsawar, Sardar Khalil Khan, Sardar Jiand Khan by united armies of Gamshadzai, Ismailzai, Yar Mohammadzai and Reki Balochs. British General had to leave the fort of Ladiz, Khwash, Rabat, Mir Jawa, Nusratabad and Kachav.

British spent thirty years to penetrate in Baloch tribes to instigate tribal conflicts by their spies and agents, they succeeded to break our brotherhood and historical unity and a civil war started in Balochistan then British attacked Balochistan again but this time with the support of many Baloch sardars. Baloch King Mir Mehrab Khan fought till last breath along with his companions and martyred. British contacted to the next King of Balochistan called Khan e Kalat to take some strategic areas on lease or rent that links Punjab to Afghanistan. 

Khan’s weakened position made him to agree against his and Baloch nation’s will. British signed a number of contracts with Baloch king Khan Khudaidad and took some important strategic areas on lease from him including Shaal (Quetta), Bolan, joined it with the southern part of Afghanistan including Pishin, Chaman, Zhobe occupied by British in the second Afghan war and named this joint Baloch-Pakhtoon area as British Balochistan. As British colonial power made roots deeper in the region they succeeded in dividing Balochistan into four parts; Central part of Balochistan was the only Baloch free country under the rule of Baloch king, Western Balochistan {Kambaran (Bandar Abbass), Chabahar, Pahra, Dozzan (Zahedan)}, was separated by Goldsmith line as a result of declaration of Bompoor conference between Baloch, Gajar (Iran) and British Empire on 1st Dec 1869. Northern part (Nimroz, Hilmund, Rek, Shorawak, Ghoriyaan, kohsaan, gulraan, kalata, pusht e koh) was separated by Durand line and given by the British imperial forces to Afghanistan 

under the Anglo-Afghan boundary commission decision in 1896 as bribe to prevent these countries to lobby with Russia or Germany. 

The eastern part [Derajat, Khan garh (Jaccobabad) Karachi] was taken on lease and included in British India, Eastern Balochistan and British Balochistan was occupied by Pakistan in 1947. On March 27, 1948 Pakistan army invaded 

Central Balochistan the last independent part of Balochistan; they arrested the King Khan Ahmad Yar Khan and looted all the royal treasures.

Pakistan and Iran  are crushing Baloch by war crimes, including chemical weapons, cluster bombardment on unarmed civilians, poisoning water resources, extra-judicial arrest, torture, killings and public hangings. 14000 Balochs including women and children are missing and thousands of families displaced from homeland that are living in worst health security and livelihood conditions. 

Balochs have a history of resistance against any attempt to contain its sovereignty.

1- Wars against Mongol invasion.

2- Wars against Greek invasion.

3-Wars of Mir Hammal Jiand at Gwadar coast against Portuguese 15th century to protect Balochistan.

4-Wars against Afghan invasion on Balochistan

5- War of Marri at Nafask Kahan against British invasion 1826

6- Mir Mehrab Khan fought in defense of Balochistan against

British invasion in Kalat and Martyred.

7- Baloch resistance against declaration of Bampoor conference between Baloch, Persians and British Empire 1st Dec 1869 border demarcation (Goldsmith line) and

withdrawal of Gajar forces from western Balochistan.

8- The revolt of Jask in 1873.-

9- The revolt of Sarhad in 1888.
10- The general uprising in 1889.

11- A major uprising under Baloch chieftain Sardar Hussein Naroui in1896 

12- Mir Dost Mohammad’s armed struggle 1928 against Gajar Iran.

13- 1948 Khan of Kalat was arrested and forced to sign instrument of accession to Pakistan prompted a fierce reaction from the Baloch people, who

took up arms under the leadership of Prince Abdul Karim then

governor of Makran and younger brother of  the King.

14- In 1958 the king Khan Ahmad yar Khan was arrested. Against this Nawab Nauroz Khan led rebel he was imprisoned and seven people from his family were executed in the Hyderabad jail. 

 15-1960 Balochistan Liberation Front fought against Iranian occupation of Balochistan. 

 16- The resistance movement (1963-1969) led by Mir Sher Muhammad Marri was the continuing expression of Baloch resentment against central rule. 

 17- In early 1972 Zrombesh was formed by a group of guerrilla fighters. It was led by Mir Rahim Zardkohi and Yar Mohammad Molazai Beywatan. Rahim zardkohi martyred in Pahra in 26 December1979 by Iranian forces.

The great Baloch women 

 Millions of Baloch women have played marvelous role in our history starting from the matrilineal society of Mehrgarh. It has been proven by the archeologists and anthropologists that the status of women was the highest; this society was lead by women. The greatest and oldest human urban civilization was not only created mostly by women but for thousands of years in extremely harsh conditions protected and preserved it by their traditional colors and geometrical designs on embroidery and rugs. Baloch medicines are the other area that is totally invented and practiced by Baloch women called Pupoo or balluk, they are not only skilled in collecting and preserving herbs and their medicinal uses, they also know how to relocate bones and increase immunity against viral infections like measles and chicken pocks. Balochi story telling and poetry is another field that is colored and decorated with Baloch women's expressions. Rabia Khuzdari, Hani, Semak and Mahnaz are some of those great Baloch poetesses their work and ideas will be remembered and followed by us always, I personally love one poem of Mahnaz in which she says that she is just like a strong fig tree which cannot be bowed by any proud storm and no rain can even touched its deep roots.. Bibo the sister of Khan Kalat and Banari the daughter of Mir Chakar Rind are the remarkable warrior women of Baloch history. Bibo commanded 16 wars on horse back against Barakzai to get Sibi back from their occupation. Banari was commanding the Baloch army in battle of Delhi. Her words are written on our hearts "life is just like dust in my hand, it will disperse one day but honor will exist for ever do not care about life but do care about the honor of Baloch" She won the battle and many families of her Balochs remained in Delhi and still live there. Baloch pride and sense of independence and sovereignty has kept it alive in extremely difficult circumstances and will always be alive and successful with our unity and deep love for honor of our motherland Balochistan.